Thursday, August 2, 2007


art bymarguerita
Pitágoras happens for being the introducer of weights and measures, elaborador of the musical theory; first in speaking of “theory” and “philosophers”, in postulating the emptiness, canalizing the religious fervor in intellectual fervor, using the definition and considering that the universal one was an only decodable work through the mathematics. They were the Pythagoreans first in maintaining the spherical Earth form and to postulate that this, along with the sun and the rest of known planets,The soul comes from another world, has been stained with the sin and has to take, chained to the body, a life of expiación and peregrination. In this school is this idea, that it will be seen soon in Plato, of the body like jail of the soul (that expressed with the formula “soma=sema”). “catharsis” (purification). The soul is a the essential of the man, and not shade or image of the body, as it appears in Homero. The catharsis of the soul, in addition to the uninformed one, included silence, the examination of conscience and the dedication to the intellectual work, specially the mathematics, in which the harmony is learned, that is to be taken by means of the study to the interior of the man. This is original of the pitagorismo, because until then the purity it had looked for solely by means of the ritual and of the mechanical prohibitions. Most important of the pitagorismo it is his “philosophy of the number”. The Pythagoreans were first of all mathematical and this determines its explanation of the nature. Arjé is for them the number. On what they based it? They observed that certain properties of the beings can mathematically be expressed. Aside from some theorems of geometry, the most important discovery made Pitágoras in the field of music. In music the numerical determination is essential: the intervals between notes of the lira can be formulated numerically, the height of the sound depends on the chord lenght and is possible to represent the scale with numerical reasons. And music is a model of the operation of the universe, since as much the universe as music is harmony, that is to say, order and beauty, and just as the musical harmony it depends on the number, is possible to be thought that it happens thus in the universe (it is the subject of celestial music, of the music of the spheres). Then, the Pythagoreans thought that all the beings are formulables mathematically and supposed that the principles of the mathematics are also the principles of the nature. From this last thesis (the numbers are arjé), the Pythagoreans were applied to these two tasks: a) to assign, by to a great extent arbitrary procedures, a number to each sort of things; for example, the 5 to the marriage, because it is sum of the first pair, the 2, feminine element, and first odd number, the 3 (the 1 is not even nor uneven), masculine element. Also they transposed the Arithmetic to geometry, considering the numbers like determination of the space: the 1 generates the point, the 2 produces line, the 3, surface, the 4, the volume. Adding these four first numbers one obtains the 10, the number or sagrada figure “tetraktis”:

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